What is Prediabetes and How to Diagnose Prediabetes?

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What is prediabetes?

Predicates is a condition in which some symptoms of diabetes are existed but not all of the diagnostic criteria are seen. Many doctors call it a gray area between normal blood sugar and diabetic blood sugar.

Generally the previous phase of type 2 diabetes is prediabetes when the blood sugar level is high but not high enough to diagnose diabetes. Prediabetes is also called borderline diabetes.

Doctor also calls prediabetes as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Prediabetes is a higher risky condition to develop type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes may also cause cardiovascular or heart disease and stroke.

Causes

Sugar comes into our bloodstream from foods especially from carbohydrate foods, not only from sugary foods. There is a pancreas behind our stomach. The pancreas produces insulin and it brings sugar through bloodstream into cells. This process turns sugar into energy by digesting or vanishing away. But, when the pancreas cannot generates enough insulin to digest sugar or the cells get resisted to response properly, sugar starts high in the blood. And, prediabetes takes place in you. When the sugar gets very high in the blood, you will have type 2 diabetes.

In addition, there are also 3 reasons that are responsible to take place prediabetes. These 3 causes are random eating, not having physical exercise and overweight. These 3 things rise blood sugar level high but not extremely high to happen type 2 diabetes. You will get prediabetes causes here in detail. It will help you to avoid these reasons.

Prediabetes statistics or number

A prediabetes affected person has a 50% higher risk of heart disease and stroke than those have no prediabetes. The CDC said, “79 million of people in USA over 20s have prediabetes.”

Symptoms of prediabetes

Doctor does not find any exact symptom of prediabetes but any one may have it. In rare cases, prediabetes affected people may have diabetes symptoms or diabetic problems. Read more on prediabetes symptoms and get controlled on yourself. You can only find out you have prediabetes when you have done blood glucose tests. You must check your type 2 diabetes every 1 or 2 years if you have already prediabetes. You have prediabetes if the test results are as follows:

  • A1C of 5.7% – 6.4%
  • Fasting blood glucose level of 100 – 125 mg/dl
  • OGTT 2 hour blood glucose of 140 mg/dl – 199 mg/dl

How to diagnose prediabetes?

What is Prediabetes and How to Diagnose Prediabetes?

A1C graph report shows normal, prediabetes and diabetes blood sugar levels.

Your doctor can diagnose your prediabetes in 3 different blood sugar tests. You should do your tests in your doctor’s lab. Your doctor can say whether you have prediabetes or diabetes or not by seeing the blood test results. Your doctor can take the tests repeatedly to be surer whether you have diabetes or not.

Test-01: Hemoglobin A1C Test

Your doctor takes a hemoglobin A1C or average blood sugar test. This test identifies average blood glucose for the past 2 to 3 months. You can give this test in normal way such as- you do not need fast or drink anything.

  • Diabetes: If the blood glucose is 6.5% or above, you are diagnosed with diabetes.
  • Prediabetes: If the blood glucose is 5.7 to 6.4%, you are diagnosed with prediabetes.
  • Normal: If the blood glucose is 5.6% or less, you have no diabetes or your blood sugar level is normal.
What is Prediabetes and How to Diagnose Prediabetes?

FPG graph shows diabetes, prediabetes and normal blood sugar levels.

Test-02: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test

Fasting Plasma Glucose test tells you about fasting blood glucose levels. You cannot eat or drink anything at least 8 hours before giving test. Doctor takes this test in the morning before breakfast. It is an easy but expensive test.

  • Diabetes: If the blood glucose is 126 mg/dl or above, you are diagnosed with diabetes.
  • Prediabetes: If the blood glucose is 100-125 mg/dl, you are diagnosed with prediabetes.
  • Normal: If the blood glucose is less than 100 mg/dl, you have no diabetes or your blood sugar level is normal.

Test-03: Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

What is Prediabetes and How to Diagnose Prediabetes?

OGTT graph shows normal, prediabetes and diabetes blood sugar levels.

Your doctor takes oral glucose tolerance test once before drinking and another after drinking a special sweet drink to check your blood glucose levels. From this test, doctor can know how your body processes glucose before and after drinking sweet or sugary drink. This is also known as 2 hours blood glucose test.

  • Diabetes: If the blood glucose is 200 mg/dl or above, you are diagnosed with diabetes.
  • Prediabetes: If the blood glucose is 140-199 mg/dl, you are diagnosed with prediabetes.
  • Normal: If the blood glucose is less than 140 mg/dl, you have no diabetes or your blood sugar level is normal.

Random Plasma Glucose test

It is also known as causal test. It is a blood check. You can take this test at any time of the day when you face severe symptoms. You are diagnosed with diabetes if the blood glucose of this test is more than or equal to 200 mg/dl.

Consciousness needs to prevent prediabetes

You should not neglect prediabetes because it is a signal of type 2 diabetes or other harmful diseases related to eyes, kidneys and nervous system. Nobody can develop type 2 diabetes if he has no prediabetes. When you have known you have prediabetes, you should take early treatment for prediabetes so that type 2 diabetes can not develop.

The Diabetes Prevention Program opined, “One can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 58% by losing 7% of his weight or 15 pounds if his weight is 200 pounds and taking moderate amount of exercise such as-brisk walking 30 minutes a day, in this way five days a week.”

The reduction of diabetes is greater (71%) in the people of 60s or older by losing weight, taking exercise and eating healthy foods.

Your doctor also advises you to avoid smoking, high cholesterol foods, animal fats or saturated fats and junk foods to keep normal your blood sugar levels. Eating fresh vegetables and fruits help to keep blood sugar levels normal. You should also eat low sugar foods or drinks and low carbohydrates diets. You can see more on food list for prediabetes.

In this way, you can prevent your prediabetes. If you see your prediabetes blood sugar level is getting higher, you should talk to your doctor.

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